Understanding object-oriented programming in C#
We've all learned how to make objects, obtain and set properties, and invoke methods. However, object-oriented programming (OOP) is so much more. The more you understand these ideas, the more you'll be able to use the advantages of OOP languages like C# to create well-designed and tested programs.
This post covers four fundamental methods for creating exceptional object-oriented software. This article walks you through the process of creating a class library component from specification to coding and testing, all while adhering to OOP principles.
Identifying different classes
Every project begins with a few sentences, regardless matter how formal your development approach is:
Is it possible for you to create a customer management system that will allow us to keep track of our customers and orders?
Could you please upgrade our accounting system so that we can keep track of our budget?
To monitor different sorts of objects, we need to update the system.
Those words can write in a specification, a change request, or even an email. Turning these phrases into a collection of well-defined classes is the first step toward writing superb C# code.
Keeping tasks separate
Object-oriented programming entails logically splitting an application's responsibilities into classes. One principal task should be assigned to each defined class.
It's easier to develop, test, and find a class when you need to update or expand it if you confine each one to a single purpose. This makes it easy to tweak and adapt the code to new requirements and requests in the future. This is sometimes referred to as "the segregation of concerns principle."
There is no such thing as an island class. Knowing the connections between the classes is an important part of object-oriented programming. The following are the most typical forms of relationships:
Collaboration ("uses a") means that one element makes use of the features of another to complete a job. A Customer Repository, for example, populates on a Retrieve and serializes on a Save using a Customer object.
The term "composition" refers to an object's ability to be made up of other items. An Order, for example, "has" a client and "has" a shipping address.
Aggregation is a sort of composition in which the component elements do not exist unless they are contained in the composition. Because the Order Item does not exist until it is connected with a specific Order, the Order and Order Item connection is an aggregate.
The term "inheritance" refers to the fact that something is passed down from one generation to the next. A type of another object is an object that is "a" type of another object. A Business Customer, for example, is a Customer, while a Residential Customer is a Customer.
These connections explain how the objects formed from those classes may collaborate to complete the application's tasks.
Taking advantage of reuse
One of OOP's main aims is reuse. In an object-oriented system, there are numerous approaches to make use of reuse:
Collaboration refers to a group of common classes that may be shared and reused. An Address class, for example, might be utilized everywhere an address is necessary.
Extract common code into a base class and reuse it in all derived classes via inheritance. An entity base class, for example, may include the fundamental code needed for each business object entity in the program.
As a separate component, create an enclosed library of reusable classes (Visual Studio project). A library of String extension methods, for example, or a logging component that may be used across projects and applications.
For each role that an entity must support, establish an interface. A logging or serialization role, for example. Any object that has to support that role can implement that interface.
Polymorphism is a consequence of employing inheritance or interfaces. Polymorphism is a fancy-sounding term that simply means "multiple forms." It's the idea that a single method may take on a variety of forms and operate in different ways based on the type that invoked it.
A method might act differently depending on the derived class that calls it in inheritance-based polymorphism. Consider an entity base class that contains a Save function. Calling Save on a Customer object will react differently than calling Save on a Product object if each entity implements the Save function with its implementation.
A method might act differently depending on the interface instance that invokes it in interface-based polymorphism. Consider an ILoggable interface that contains a Log method. Calling Log on a Customer object might react differently than calling Log on a Product object, assuming both the Customer and Product classes implement the ILoggable interface.
OOP is the Key Element
Object-oriented programming is the cornerstone of many modern application development methodologies. You must grasp algebra to excel in math courses such as calculus and differential equations. You must also learn OOP if you want to succeed with clean coding, agile, and design patterns.
Building well-crafted and tested C# apps require an understanding of and implementation of object-oriented development approaches. Once you have an understanding of how OOP works and its capabilities, you will find a way to start with it.
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